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is a cryptocurrency that runs on a (1) global peer to peer network, is (Two) decentralised (no single entity can control it), it’s (Three) open source (wallet &, transaction verification), (Four) bypassing middlemen or central authority, with (Five) no issuer or acquirer, (6) anyone with a laptop or smartphone can use it
Gegevens is permanently recorded on the Bitcoin network through files called blocks. A block is a record of some or all of the most latest Bitcoin transactions that have not yet bot recorded te any prior blocks. Fresh blocks are added to the end of the record (known spil the blockchain), and can never be switched or liquidated once written (albeit some software will eliminate them if they are orphaned). Each block memorializes what took place te the minutes before it wasgoed created. Each block contains a record of some or all latest transactions and a reference to the block that came instantaneously before it. It also contains an response to a difficult-to-solve mathematical puzzle – the response to which is unique to each block. Fresh blocks cannot be submitted to the network without the onberispelijk response – the process of “mining” is essentially the process of rivaling to be the next to find the response that “solves” the current block. The mathematical problem te each block is enormously difficult to solve, but once a valid solution is found, it is very effortless for the surplus of the network to confirm that the solution is juist. There are numerous valid solutions for any given block – only one of the solutions needs to be found for the block to be solved. Because there is a prize of brand fresh bitcoins for solving each block, every block also contains a record of which Bitcoin addresses or scripts are entitled to receive the prize. This record is known spil a generation transaction, or a coinbase transaction, and is always the very first transaction appearing ter every block. The number of Bitcoins generated vanaf block starts at 50 and is halved every 210,000 blocks (about four years). Bitcoin transactions are broadcast to the network by the sender, and all peers attempting to solve blocks collect the transaction records and add them to the block they are working to solve. Miners get an incentive to include transactions te their blocks because of fastened transaction fees. The difficulty of the mathematical problem is automatically adjusted by the network, such that it targets a objective of solving an average of 6 blocks vanaf hour. Every 2016 blocks (solved ter about two weeks), all Bitcoin clients compare the actual number created with this objective and modify the target by the percentage that it varied. The network comes to a overeenstemming and automatically increases (or decreases) the difficulty of generating blocks. Because each block contains a reference to the prior block, the collection of all blocks te existence can be said to form a chain. However, it’s possible for the chain to have improvised splits – for example, if two miners arrive at two different valid solutions for the same block at the same time, unbeknownst to one another. The peer-to-peer network is designed to resolve thesis splits within a brief period of time so that only one branch of the chain survives. The client accepts the ‘longest’ chain of blocks spil valid. The ‘length’ of the entire blockchain refers to the chain with the most combined difficulty, not the one with the most blocks. This prevents someone from forking the chain and creating a large number of low-difficulty blocks and having it accepted by the network spil ‘longest’
An online device for exploring the blockchain of a particular cryptocurrency, where you can see and go after live all the transactions happening on the blockchain. Block explorers can serve spil blockchain analysis and provide information such spil total network hash rate, coin supply, transaction growth, etc.
Chain linking is the process of connecting two blockchains with each other, thus permitting transactions inbetween the chains to take place. This will permit blockchains like Bitcoin to communicate with other sidechains, permitting the exchange of assets inbetween them
Classical cryptocurrency mining requires massive investments ter hardware and electro-therapy. Cloud mining companies aim to make mining accessible to everybody. People just can loom te to a webstek and invest money te the company which already has mining datacenters. The money is managed by the company and it is invested ter mining equipment. Investors get a share of the revenue. The disadvantage for the user is that cloud mining has low comes back compared to traditional mining.
A fundamental problem ter distributed computing is to achieve overall system reliability te the presence of a number of faulty processes. This often requires processes to agree on some gegevens value that is needed during computation. The overeenstemming problem requires agreement among a number of processes for a single gegevens value. Some of the processes may fail or be unreliable te other ways, so overeenstemming protocols voorwaarde be fault tolerant. The processes voorwaarde somehow waterput forward their candidate values, communicate with one another, and agree on a single overeenstemming value. The bitcoin blockchain uses tens unit to ensure the security of the system. It creates an economic system where you can only participate by incurring costs, Proof of work (POW). You do that for the possibility of prize/bitcoin. If you spend money, and you play fair by the rules, you get money back. If you cheat, you lose money. It doesn’t pay to cheat. This ordinary spel theoretical equilibrium is the core of the bitcoin overeenstemming algorithm
A consortium blockchain is a blockchain where the overeenstemming process is managed by a pre-selected set of knots, for example, one might imagine a consortium of 15 financial institutions, each of which operates a knot and of which ten vereiste sign every block for the block to be valid. The right to read the blockchain may be public or restricted to the participants. There are also hybrid routes such spil the root hashes of the blocks being public together with an API that permits members of the public to make a limited number of queries and get back cryptographic proofs of some parts of the blockchain state. Thesis blockchains may be considered “partially decentralized”
iThe cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that takes a particular input which can be any kleuter of digital gegevens be it a password or jpeg verkeersopstopping and produces a single motionless length output. Some examples of different hash function algorithms are MD5, MD4 or SHA256. The last one is used ter the Bitcoin protocol. Main properties: (1) effortless to compute hash value for any given message (Two) infeasible to generate a message from its hash except by attempting all possible input combinations(brute force attack) (Three) infeasible to modify a message without switching the hash (Four) infeasible to find two different messages with the same hash (Five) deterministic so the same message always results te the same hash. Cryptographic hash functions have many information security applications, notably te digital signatures, message authentication codes (MACs), and other forms of authentication. They can also be used spil ordinary hash functions, to index gegevens te hash tables, for fingerprinting, to detect duplicate gegevens or uniquely identify files, and spil checksums to detect accidental gegevens corruption
Cryptojacking is referred spil a secret use of a device to mine cryptocurrency. The very first widely known attempt for cryptojacking wasgoed the torrent tracker Piratebay. They enabled an in-browser mining software so when somebody visits the webstek his/hier laptop will commence mining cryptocurrency via the browser. Users began noticing the unusual behavior ter their browsers and Piratebay took down the software. There have bot many attempts for cryptojacking since then. The easiest way to find out if a laptop is mining cryptocurrency is to check the resources monitor for unusual CPU behavior or using the debug console of your browser an look for mining scripts. Developers also released Chrome browser extensions to protect users from mining occurring on their devices.
For an application to be considered a Dapp or decentralized application it voorwaarde meet the following criteria (1) Application voorwaarde be entirely open-source, it voorwaarde operate autonomously, and with no entity controlling the majority of its tokens. The application may adapt its protocol te response to proposed improvements and market terugkoppeling, but all switches voorwaarde be determined by overeenstemming of its users. (Two) Application gegevens and records of operation vereiste be cryptographically stored te a public, decentralized blockchain ter order to avoid any central points of failure. (Trio) The application vereiste use a cryptographic token (bitcoin or a token native to its system) which is necessary for access to the application, and any contribution of value from miners/farmers should be rewarded with the application’s tokens. (Four) The application vereiste generate tokens according to a standard cryptographic algorithm acting spil a proof of the value knots are contributing to the application (Bitcoin uses the Proof of Work Algorithm)
Private keys are used for signing transactions. Each time a transaction is sent overheen the blockchain it gets signed by the user’s private key. The signed transaction is broadcasted overheen the network together with the corresponding public key. Each miner is able to verify the signature by verifying the signature with the public key.
The creation of an ongoing alternative version of the blockchain, by creating two blocks at the same time on different parts of the network. This creates two parallel blockchains, where one of the two is the winning blockchain. The winning blockchain gets determined by its users, by the majority choosing on which blockchain their clients should be listening
A hardfork is a switch to the blockchain protocol that makes previously invalid blocks/transactions valid, and therefore requires all users to upgrade their clients. The most latest example of a hardfork te public blockchains is the Ethereum hardfork which happened on July 21st, 2016. The hardfork switched the Ethereum protocol, therefore a 2nd blockchain emerged (Ethereum Classic, ETC) which supports the old Ethereum protocol. Te order to proceed existing ETC needs miners, which would validate the transactions on the blockchain
is a proof-of-work system used to limit email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and more recently has become known for its use ter bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) spil part of the mining algorithm. Hashcash wasgoed proposed ter May 1997 by Adam Back
ICOs are types of crowdfunding mechanisms conducted on the blockchain. Originally, the main idea of an ICO wasgoed to fund fresh projects by pre-selling coins/tokens to investors interested te the project. Entrepreneurs present a whitepaper describing the business monster and the technical specifications of a project before the ICO. They lay out a timeline for the project and set a target budget where they describe the future funds spending (marketing, R&,D, etc.) spil well spil coin distribution (how many coins are they going to keep for themselves, token supply, etc.). During the crowdfunding campaign, investors purchase tokens with already established cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum.
The InterPlanetary Opstopping System (IPFS) is a hypermedia distribution protocol, addressed by content and identities. IPFS enables the creation of totally distributed applications. It aims to make the web quicker, safer, and more open. IPFS is an open source project developed by the team at Interplanetary Networks and many contributors from the open source community. It is a peer-to-peer distributed verkeersopstopping system that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. Ter some ways, IPFS is similar to the Web, but IPFS could be seen spil a single BitTorrent swarm, exchanging objects within one Git repository. Te other words, IPFS provides a high throughput content-addressed block storage monster, with content-addressed hyperlinks. This forms a generalized Merkle DAG, a gegevens structure upon which one can build versioned opstopping systems, blockchains, and even a Voortdurend Web. IPFS combines a distributed hash table, an incentivized block exchange, and a self-certifying namespace. IPFS has no single point of failure, and knots do not need to trust each other
A laptop on a blockchain network that only verifies a limited number of transactions relevant to its dealings, making use of the simplified payment verification (SPV) mode
The Lightning network is a decentralized network using wise contract functionality on the blockchain to enable instant payments across a network of participants. The Lightning Network will permit bitcoin transactions to toebijten instantly, without worrying about block confirmation times. It will permit millions of transactions ter a few seconds, at low costs, even inbetween different blockchains, spil long spil both chains use the same cryptographic hash function. The Lightning network will permit two participants on the network to create a ledger entry, conduct a number of transactions inbetween themselves and after the process has finished, record the state of the transactions on the blockchain. Spil for now, the bitcoin network is capable of processing up to 7 transactions vanaf 2nd. The Visa payment network, for example, is believed to accomplish 45,000 transactions vanaf 2nd during a regular holiday period. This protocol attempts to solve the bitcoin scalability problem
The basic idea behind Merkle tree is to have some lump of gegevens that is linking to another. You can do this by linking things together with a cryptographic hash. The content itself can be used to determine the hash. By using the cryptographic hashing wij can address the content, and content gets immutable because if you switch anything te the gegevens, the cryptographic hash switches and the verbinding will be different. Bitcoin uses cryptographic hashing, where every block points to the previous one if you modify the block, the hash will switch and will make the block invalid
Mining is the process of adding transaction records to Bitcoin’s public ledger of past transactions or blockchain. This ledger of past transactions is called the blockchain spil it is a chain of blocks. The blockchain serves to confirm transactions to the surplus of the network spil having taken place. Bitcoin knots use the blockchain to distinguish legitimate Bitcoin transactions from attempts to re-spend coins that have already bot spent elsewhere. Mining is intentionally designed to be resource-intensive and challenging so that the number of blocks found each day by miners remains constant. Individual blocks vereiste contain a proof of work to be considered valid. This proof of work is verified by other Bitcoin knots each time they receive a block. Bitcoin uses the hashcash proof-of-work function. The primary purpose of mining is to permit Bitcoin knots to reach a secure, tamper-resistant overeenstemming. Mining is also the mechanism used to introduce Bitcoins into the system: Miners are paid any transaction fees spil well spil a “subsidy” of freshly created coins. This both serves the purpose of disseminating fresh coins te a decentralized manner spil well spil motivating people to provide security for the system
Mining difficulty measures how hard it would be to find the next Bitcoin block. Every proof of work overeenstemming algorithm has a mining difficulty which is also adjustable. Depending on how many miners join the network the difficulty might rise or fall. The aim of the difficulty is to keep the block times even and make the network secure. The average time for finding a Bitcoin block is set for Ten minutes. Litecoin is set for Two.Five minutes.
Ter a mining pool, different users organize together ter order to provide computing power for the bitcoin network. If a Bitcoin block is freshly created, each of the users te the mining pool receives its fair share proportionately to his mining power. To become a member of a mining pool, the user needs to run software provided by the mining pool. The advantage of the mining pools is that block prizes get distributed across the pool providing more stable income.
Any laptop that connects to the blockchain network is called a knot. Knots that fully enforce all of the rules of the blockchain (i.e., Bitcoin) are called utter knots. Most knots on the network are lightweight knots instead of utter knots, but total knots form the backbone of the network
Wise contracts on the blockchain cannot access the outside network on their own. Therefore oracles sit inbetween a wise contract and the outer world, providing the gegevens needed by the brainy contract to prove show while sending its directions to outer systems
a fully private blockchain is a blockchain where write permissions are kept centralized to one organization. Read permissions may be public or restricted to an arbitrary extent. Likely applications include database management, auditing, etc. internal to a single company, and so public readability may not be necessary ter many cases at all, however ter other cases public auditability is desired
Each time a user runs a cryptocurrency wallet for the very first time a public-private key pair gets generated. The private key is a randomly generated number which permits users to transact overheen the blockchain. It is locally stored and kept secret. Each time a Bitcoin gets sent a private key has to sign the transaction. This activity is automatically executed by the wallet software. When a wallet asks users to do a backup what this means is that the users vereiste secure their private key. There are different types of wallets such spil online wallets, mobile wallets, desktop wallet, hardware wallets or paper wallets. The category of each wallet is determined by where private keys are stored. Online wallets are mostly provided by exchanges and keep user’s private keys on their servers. If the service provider goes offline users would lose access to their funds. Hardware wallets for example store user’s private keys ter a secure device which looks like a USB flash drive.
A Proof of authority is a overeenstemming mechanism ter a private blockchain which essentially gives one client(or a specific number of clients) with one particular private key the right to make all of the blocks ter the blockchain
Proof-of-stake (PoS) is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed overeenstemming. While the proof-of-work (PoW) method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algorithms or other client puzzles, to validate electronic transactions, proof-of-stake asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency (their “stake” ter the currency). Peercoin wasgoed the very first cryptocurrency to launch using proof-of-Stake. Other vooraanstaand implementations are found ter BitShares, Nxt, BlackCoin, NuShares/NuBits and Qora. Ethereum has planned a hard fork transition from PoW to PoS overeenstemming. Decred hybridizes PoW with PoS and combines elements of both te an attempt to garner the benefits of the two systems and create a more sturdy notion of overeenstemming. With Proof of Work, the probability of mining a block depends on the work done by the miner (e.g. CPU/GPU cycles spent checking hashes). Ter the case of Bitcoin, with Proof of Stake, the resource that’s compared is the amount of Bitcoin a miner holds – someone holding 1% of the Bitcoin can mine 1% of the “Proof of Stake blocks”. Instead of sacrificing energy to mine a block, a user voorwaarde prove they own a certain amount of the cryptocurrency to generate a block. The more stake you own, the more likely you are to generate a block. Te theory, this should prevent users from creating forks because it will devalue their stake and it should save a loterijlot of energy. Proof of Stake sounds like a good idea, but ironically, there is the “Nothing at Stake” problem. Since mining Bitcoins is costly, it is not wise to waste your energy on a fork that won’t earn you any money, however with Proof of Stake, it is free to mine a fork
POW system/protocol/function is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service manhandles such spil spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a rekentuig. The concept may have bot very first introduced by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor te a 1993 journal. The term “Proof of Work” wasgoed very first coined and formalized te a 1999 paper by Markus Jakobsson and Ari Juels. A key feature of thesis schemes is their asymmetry: the work vereiste be moderately hard (but feasible) on the requester side but effortless to check for the service provider. This idea is also known spil a CPU cost function, client puzzle, computational puzzle or CPU pricing function
a public blockchain is a blockchain that anyone te the world can read, anyone te the world can send transactions to and expect to see them included if they are valid, and anyone ter the world can participate ter the overeenstemming process – the process for determining what blocks get added to the chain and what the current state is. Spil a substitute for centralized or quasi-centralized trust, public blockchains are secured by crypto economics – the combination of economic incentives and cryptographic verification using mechanisms such spil proof of work or proof of stake, following a general principle that the degree to which someone can have an influence te the overeenstemming process is proportional to the quantity of economic resources that they can bring to bear. Thesis blockchains are generally considered to be “fully decentralized”
is a person or group of people who created the bitcoin protocol and reference software, Bitcoin Core (formerly known spil Bitcoin-Qt). Ter 2008, Nakamoto published a paper on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com describing the bitcoin digital currency. Te 2009, they released the very first bitcoin software that launched the network and the very first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins
is a family of cryptographic hash functions published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spil a U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). SHA256 is an algorithm used te Bitcoin that takes an input of any size which can be any form of gegevens(text, jpeg, pdf, etc.), mixes it up and creates a immovable size output(a hash) which is 256-bit (32-byte) long . You can think of the hash spil the fingerprint of the gegevens. Hashes are one-way functions – they cannot be decrypted back. The only way to decrypt a hash is by brute forcing it. Brute force means to systematically attempt all the combinations for an input. Brute force attack will always find the input, no matter its complexity. The downside is whether or not you will still be alive when it ultimately guesses it
are blockchains that are interoperable with each other and with Bitcoin, avoiding liquidity shortages, market fluctuations, fragmentation, security breaches and outright fraud associated with alternative crypto-currencies. “Sidechains are fresh blockchains which are backed by Bitcoins, via Bitcoin contracts, just spil dollars and pounds used to be backed by cold hard gold. You could te principle have thousands of sidechains “pegged” to Bitcoin, all with different characteristics and purposes … and all of them taking advantage of the scarcity and resilience ensured by the main Bitcoin blockchain, which ter turn could iterate to implement experimental sidechain features once they have bot attempted and tested…” more
A softfork is a switch to the bitcoin protocol wherein only previously valid blocks/transactions are made invalid. Since old knots will recognize the fresh blocks spil valid, a softfork is backward-compatible. This zuigeling of fork requires only a majority of the miners upgrading to enforce the fresh rules
SPV clients are Bitcoin lightweight clients which do not download and store the entire blockchain locally. Thesis wallets provide a way to verify payments without having to download the accomplish blockchain. An SPV client only downloads the block headers by connecting to a total knot
Swarm is a distributed storage toneel and content distribution service, a native base layer service of the Ethereum web three stack. The primary objective of Swarm is to provide a decentralized and redundant store of Ethereum’s public record, te particular, to store and distribute dApp code and gegevens spil well spil blockchain gegevens
Te the setting of Blockchains, a token is a digital identity for something that can be wielded. Historically, tokens embarked spil meta information encoded ter ordinary Bitcoin transactions, thereby taking advantage of the Bitcoin blockchain’s strong immutability. At a protocol layer, tokens were outsourced extensions to Bitcoin’s core protocol. Instead of being integrated spil a feature on a software level, those tokens were created by misappropriating gegevens fields te Bitcoin transactions (such spil encoding gegevens ter the amount or op_return field). Today, modern tokens are created spil sophisticated clever contract systems with sophisticated permission systems and interaction paths affixed. Wise contracts can be understood spil software agents, which act deterministically and autonomously, within the scope of a given network, according to a predefined rule set. If the governance rules around issuance and management of a token are reasonably sophisticated regarding how they coordinate a group of stakeholders, token wise contracts may be understood spil organizations sui generis. The management rules may reflect those of known legal, organizational entities such spil stock corporations, but they do not have to
may be included with any transfer of bitcoins from one address to another. At the ogenblik, many transactions are typically processed ter a way where no toverfee is expected at all, but for transactions which draw coins from many bitcoin addresses and therefore have a large gegevens size, a petite transaction toverfee is usually expected. The transaction toverfee is processed by and received by the bitcoin miner. When a fresh bitcoin block is generated with a successful hash, the information for all of the transactions is included with the block, and all transaction fees are collected by that user creating the block, who is free to assign those fees to himself. Transaction fees are voluntary on the part of the person making the bitcoin transaction, spil the person attempting to make a transaction can include any toverfee or none at all ter the transaction. On the other arm, nobody mining fresh bitcoins necessarily needs to accept the transactions and include them ter the fresh block being created. The transaction toverfee is, therefore, an incentive on the part of the bitcoin user to make sure that a particular transaction will get included te the next block which is generated. It is envisioned that overheen time the cumulative effect of collecting transaction fees will permit somebody creating fresh blocks to “earn” more bitcoins that will be mined from fresh bitcoins created by the fresh block itself. This is also an incentive to keep attempting to create fresh blocks even if the value of the freshly created block from the mining activity is zero ter the far future
A machine is Turing finish if it can perform any calculation that any other programmable pc is capable of. All modern computers are Turing-complete ter this sense. The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) which runs on the Ethereum blockchain is Turing finish. Thus it can process any “computable function”. It is, ter brief, able to do what you could do with any conventional rekentuig and programming language
Whisper is a part of the Ethereum p2p protocol suite that permits for messaging inbetween users via the same network that the blockchain runs on. The main task of whisper will be the provision of a communication protocol inbetween dapps